Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery, Tokyo 2000 (TPT)
TPT was formed in 2000 in response to sexual crimes committed by Japan during World War II. The tribunal aimed to raise international awareness of the ‘comfort system,’ to demand that those responsible be brought to justice, as well as draw attention to the ongoing impact of impunity experienced by victims.
TPT used charges of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and international crimes that are relevant to rape and other forms of sexual violence. TPT was organized by female activists and human rights, non-government organizations in Asia and internationally. The process was enriched by an abundant collection of testimonies by women victims and Japanese veterans, written documents, and historical evidence and academic writings of historians, legal experts, psychologists, etc.
The verdict of the TPT in 2001 stated that ‘comfort system,’ considered by the Japanese as voluntary prostitution, is a form of crimes against humanity; and it determined that the ten accused, Emperor Hirohito and nine high-ranking military commanders and several government ministers, were guilty. These nine were indicted because of their involvement in the establishment of the ‘comfort system,’ and because they had the power and capacity to stop the widespread rape.
Russell Tribunal on Palestine (RToP)>
The RToP was set up in 2009 in response to the silence of the international community in the face of violations of various international laws by Israel. The goal was to mobilize and encourage the involvement of international civil society in the Palestine issue. This tribunal investigated the sustainability of the occupation of Palestine by Israel, as well as its non-compliance with UN resolutions, including the pronouncement of the International Court of Justice concerning the construction of the separation wall by Israel within the Palestinian territories. The RToP also investigated the responsibility of Israel and other countries, especially the United States and the countries of the European Union, and various international organizations, such as the UN and the Arab League.
The Tribunal formed an International Support Committee consisting of important international figures, including Israel, the country under investigation. Among them were Nobel laureates, a former secretary general of the United Nations, former prime ministers and presidents, as well as representatives of various groups from civil society, such as writers, journalists, actors, scientists, professors, judges, lawyers, etc. The legitimacy of the TToP did not come from governments or political parties, but was based on credible professionals committed to fundamental rights.
At its last session, the RToP summarized some of its findings, including: violations of international laws by Israel; the practice of apartheid against Palestinians; the responsibility of the United States and the European Union and international organizations, such as the United Nations; the responsibility of private corporations that assist Israel in violating international law; and what needs to be done in the future.